Oooouch!! A bull rider was hospitalized with serious injuries after a bull stepped on his face at a rodeo!
Reconstruction results are near perfect!
Officials say the man fell off the bull at a rodeo. As he was on the ground the bull turned and stepped on his face resulting in a severely torn left side of his face. He was then rushed to hospital where he underwent reconstruction and is expected to make a full recovery.
Head trauma from a crushing brain injury, as the name implies, occurs when the brain and skull are crushed, usually between two hard objects. The more forceful the crushing is, the more severe damage will be, but damage also depends on factors such as the location of the injury and overall brain health. For example, people who have vascular issues may suffer blood clots or strokes after a crushing brain injury.
The brain itself usually suffers extreme injuries as a result of a crushing brain injury. The severity of the damage depends upon the force behind the crushing, as well as the location of the damage. For instance, damage to the brain's language centers can produce difficulties speaking or understanding language. The damage may be short or long-term, and may change over time. It's common for brain injuries to continually produce new side effects, even as old side effects disappear.
Some immediate effects of crushing brain injuries include: Distorted head shape and intense swelling. The jaw, cheeks, or nose might also be involved. Bleeding from the nose, eyes, or ears. Fluid leaking from the nose, eyes, or ears. Bleeding from the head. Intense head pain. Loss of consciousness. Nausea, dizziness, vomiting, fainting, and diarrhea. Coma or inability to remain awake and alert. Changes in mood or personality.
Peristalsis of the intestines during an exploratory laparotomy!
This is the rhythmic and alternate contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract.
Broadly speaking, in much of the gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces a ball of food (called bolus while in the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the gastrointestinal tract. Peristaltic movement is initiated by circular smooth muscles contracting behind the chewed material to prevent it from moving back into the mouth, followed by a contraction of longitudinal smooth muscles which pushes the digested food forward.
Advanced oral cancer in a 40 year old male smoker!!
This patient had history of leukoplakia, a precancerous condition of the mouth that lead to changes to cells of the mouth and make them more likely to develop into cancer.
Leukoplakia is a condition of the mouth that involves the formation of white leathery spots on the mucous membranes of the tongue and inside of the mouth. It is not a specific disease entity and is diagnosed by exclusion of diseases that may cause similar white lesions like candidiasis or lichen planus.
The cause in most cases is unknown, but many are related to tobacco use and chronic irritation. A small proportion of cases, particularly those involving the floor of the mouth or the undersurface of the tongue is associated with a risk of cancer.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma in the most common intraoral site manifesting as a chronic, indurated ulcer. Tobacco is a potent risk factor for oral cancer. An interaction occurs between redox-active metals in saliva and the low reactive free radicals in cigarette smoke. The result is that saliva loses its antioxidant capacity and instead becomes a potent pro-oxidant milieu, as well as defective DNA repair which plays a significant role.
Common physical examination findings of oral cancer include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, soreness, difficulty chewing or swallowing or moving the jaw and tongue, hoarseness, numbness of the tongue or swelling of the jaw that causes dentures to fit poorly.
The predominant therapy for oral cancer is surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of all.
Baby’s head popping out with the amniotic membranes still intact during a cesarean section delivery!
The amniotic sac is an opaque bubble that covers all babies in the womb from right after conception. As the baby grows, it fills with amniotic fluid, the watery liquid surrounding and cushioning a growing fetus within the amnion. It allows the fetus to move freely without the walls of the uterus being too tight against its body.
It is rare for a baby to be born with the sac still completely intact as most sacs split open during labour on their own, releasing its protective fluid. This is what people mean when they refer to a mother's waters breaking. In some situations like the one presented above, if rupture of the membrane doesn't take place and the fetus is born within an intact sac, an artificial rupture of membranes, also known as an amniotomy, may be performed by a midwife or obstetrician.
Photo by @nachoptomasone
Hearts will never be practical until they are made unbreakable.
And when they do, that is when we become immune to mortality.
From the moment it begins beating until the moment it stops, the human heart works tirelessly, like a pumping machine.
The huge ovarian serous cystadenoma from the previous case with the ruler given for comparison!
It’s hard to believe this was discovered in a 16-year-old female.
An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with liquid or semiliquid material that arises in an ovary. Such cysts can be broadly classified as either functional or neoplastic. Neoplastic ovarian cysts can be either benign or malignant. This picture shows a large benign serous cystadenoma of an ovary at the time of surgery.
This type of tumor is at the benign end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumors and is generally asymptomatic, and if symptoms are present, they are usually related to mass effect with displacement of adjacent structures, e.g. loops of bowel, adnexal torsion.
They are composed of unilocular (or at times multilocular) cysts filled with clear watery fluid. Most cysts measure 10 cm in average diameter, but may be extremely large. This one measured 30cm!
Photos by @rosyabiabdallah
Slow motion of a serous ovarian cyst from a 16-year-old female patient!
This benign serous ovarian tumor (serous cystadenoma) is most frequently encountered in the 4th and 5th decades of life but can be found in younger patients.
Most tumors are harmless and reduce in their own. They are asymptomatic until they reach large size. Symptoms include abdominal discomfort and chronic pelvic pain.
Grossly, they consist of thin-walled unilocular cyst usually filled with clear serous fluid.
Video by @eliaselhaddad
Doctors were operating on a suspected cancer patient to find a bunch of gallstones, to be more specific, a staggering 838 of them!
Gallstones, or cholelithiasis, are crystalline bodies formed within the biliary tree, including the gallbladder and the common bile duct, by the concretion of bile components, cholesterol, or a mixture of both.
Usually, multiple small gallstones measuring about 0.5 cm will be present within the gallbladder. However occasionally there can be either one very large gallstone present measuring up to 5 cm diameter or hundreds of smaller stones the size of a grain of sand.
The 60 year old patient had excruciating epigastric abdominal pain especially after a fat-rich meal, and intermittent fevers for over a year. A CT scan showed a mass near her gallbladder, and surgeons suspected she had cancer, until they found the true cause of her pain.
Cholecystectomy was performed and an extraordinary amount of gallstones were found during the surgery, as seen above, with the ruler giving a sense of scale.
They were all emptied into the dish and counted to be as many as 838 gallstones.